Normally the pattern, i.e. the patches, and the morphology, size and weight and, of course, the geographical habitat, allow to find the differences:
The jaguar or Panthera onca is the biggest and heaviest of the panthers (except for lions and tigers), with the biggest patches formed by irregular clusters of spots, and is only found in South, Central and in the utmost South of North America;
the leopard or Panthera pardus is found in Africa and Asia (9 subspecies) is smaller, less massive, and has more and smaller patches (the snow Leopard or Uncia uncia, formerly Panthera uncia, or the clouded Leopard or Neofelis nebulosa, are not considered as subspecies of the leopard);
the cheetah or Acinonyx jubatus is the most slender of the big cats and of a different family, built for speed, with long legs, a small head, and the black stripe starting under the eye on both sides and running to the muzzle is specific for the cheetah.
If looking at the faces above, I would answer (from the left to the right): cheetah, leopard, jaguar
The so-called "black panthers" can be either jaguars or leopards.